Verbals Participles, gerunds, & infinitives
Participle • A participle is a verbal, which looks like a verb And acts like an adjective. • Present participles end in –ing (as in swimming). • Past participle end in –ed (as in remembered), -en (eaten), -d (paid), -t (burnt), or –n (seen).
Ex: The smiling teacher greeted the students. • Ex: The tired joggers walked over the fallen leaves.
Participle Phrase • A participle phrase consists of the participle, its modifiers, and other words that complete the idea begun by the participle. • Ex: That tall woman exiting the lab teaches chemistry. • Ex: The concert scheduled for June was canceled.
Writing Tip • Use the participle phrase in front of and right after the noun it describes. “The man waiting for the taxi was cold” and “Waiting for the taxi, the man was cold are two ways to use that particular participle phrase.
Gerund • A gerund is a verbal that ends in –ing and acts as a noun. It can act as a subject, direct object, subject complement (predicate noun), or OOTP (object of the preposition). • Ex: Listening is a great asset. • Ex: Do you think most students enjoy reading?
Gerund Phrase • A gerund phrase includes the gerund, its modifiers, and the words that complete the idea begun by the gerund. • Ex: Reporting the news was Brooke’s dream job. • Ex: We could not stop them from yelling at the game.
Writing Tip • Although a gerund ends in –ing and looks like a verb, it functions as a noun.
Infinitive • An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb. • Ex: to pretend, to understand, to laugh • The infinitive functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
Infinitive Phrase • The infinitive phrase consists of the infinitive, its modifiers, all of the other words that help to complete the thought begun by the infinitive. • Ex: To win was Ted’s goal. (subject) • Ex: Everyone wanted to win. (direct object)