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Verbals

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Verbals

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  1. Verbals Gerund Infinitive Participle

  2. Verbal Phrase = • A phrase that is centered around a verb form. • This verb form is NOT used as a verb in the sentence • It is used as a noun, adjectiveor adverb. There are 3 kinds of verbals or verbal phrases: GERUNDPARITCIPLEINFINITIVE

  3. Gerund What? - ing NOUN

  4. Gerund / Gerund Phrase • …centers around a verb form ending in -ING • …is always used as a noun • …is never surrounded by commas (except for appositives) • Caution! -ING verb forms can also be verbs or adjectives (These are NOTgerunds.) • …can be used in each of the 6 noun positions

  5. Not all -ING words are Gerunds: • morning • evening • something • nothing • anything • everything • She is driving to school today.

  6. Gerund / Gerund Phrase EXAMPLES: • Swimming the mile is my best event. • I like swimming the mile. • My best event is swimming the mile. • I gave swimming the mile a try. • He lectured us about swimming the mile. • My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled.

  7. Gerund / Gerund Phrase ANSWERS: • Swimming the mile is my best event. (Subject) • I like swimming the mile. (DO) • My best event is swimming the mile. (PN) • I gave swimming the mile a try. (IO) • He lectured us about swimming the mile. (OP) • My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled. (APP)

  8. Gerund / Gerund Phrase EXAMPLES: • His sister was dancing in the show. • I hate practicing the piano. • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. • Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life. • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar.

  9. Gerund / Gerund Phrase ANSWERS: • His sister was dancing in the show. (not a gerund, verb phrase) • I hate practicing the piano. (DO) • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. (IO) • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. (S) • Wishing upon a star, Sue imagined a better life. (not a gerund, participial phrase) • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar.(not a gerund, clause)

  10. Gerund / Gerund Phrase EXAMPLES: • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms. • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history. • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening.

  11. Gerund / Gerund Phrase ANSWERS: • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. (S) • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms. (PN) • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. (S) • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history. (OP) • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening. (DO)

  12. Gerund / Gerund Phrase EXAMPLES: • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. • The smiling child amused his parents. • Give playing golf another chance. • Pam is studying for her French exam. • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut.

  13. Gerund / Gerund Phrase ANSWERS: • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. (S) • The smiling child amused his parents.(not a gerund, participle) • Give playing golf another chance. (IO) • Pam is studying for her French exam. (not a gerund, verb phrase) • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. (not a gerund, participial phrase)

  14. Gerund / Gerund Phrasepatterns to look for… Subject + verb … Subject + linking verb + PN Subject + action verb + DO Subject + action verb (usu. give) + IO DO Preposition + OP S, Appositive ,verb…(Other combinations are possible for this one.)

  15. Participle -ing -d -ed -n -en -nt What kind? Which one? ADJECTIVE

  16. Participles… • are verb forms that act like adjectives. • can end in –ing, -d, -ed, -n, -en, nt • will come as close as they can to the noun they modify • can come BEFORE or AFTER the noun it modifies

  17. Participles Examples: • The frowning clown fell down. (article/ adj./noun) • The clown, frowning at the crowd, fell down. • Frowning at the crowd, the clown fell down.

  18. Participial Phrases… • may fall at the beginning of the sentence. • If so, it will be separated from the sentencewith a comma Example: • Bent by the wind, the tree finally fell over.

  19. Find the participles: • The fallen tree blocked the road. • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies. • The running water eroded the soil. • We finally got our own swimming pool. • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful.

  20. Find the participles (Answers) • The fallen tree blocked the road. • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies. (gerund) • The running water eroded the soil. • We finally got our own swimming pool. • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. (gerund)

  21. Find the participial phrases: • Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family. • Seeing my family made me feel safe. • Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell. • The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage. • I saw my uncle waiting for me.

  22. Find the participial phrases(Answers) • Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family. • Seeing my family made me feel safe. (gerund) • Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell. • The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage. • I saw my uncle waiting for me.

  23. Find the participial phrases: • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family. • Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely. • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin. • Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down.

  24. Find the participial phrases(Answers) • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. (gerund / appositive) • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family. (gerund) • Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely. • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin. • Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down.

  25. Participle / Participial Phrase patterns to look for… participial phrase,Subject + verb… Subject,participial phrase,verb… Subject + verb +DO participial phrase Preposition+ OP participial phrase Article participleNoun

  26. Infinitive What? (NOUN) Which one? (ADJ.) What kind? (ADJ.) Why? (ADV.) to + verb NOUN / ADJECTIVE / ADVERB

  27. Infinitive RULES: • Center around TO + verb • Verb is “naked” – No endings (-ing, -ed, etc.) • Examples: to go, to sit, to talk, etc. • Can be used as noun, adj. or adv. • Caution! Do not confuse with prepositional phrases using “to”(to school, to me, to us, to them, to lunch, etc.)

  28. Find the Infinitives • I wanted to go to the mall today. • My mom went to bed early. • Your cat ate too much food today. • To sleep all day is unhealthy. • I want to ask you a question.

  29. Find the Infinitive Phrases: • I went to the pond to fish for bass. • I have to go to the mall before supper. • To make good grades, one must study. • My goal is to make good grades. • I sat with the team to give them my support. • Don’t try to get out of here too fast.

  30. Infinitive Phrases used as NOUNS: • I want to get a car for my birthday. • My goal is to get a car for my birthday. • To get a car for my birthday would be wonderful. • My goal, to get a car for my birthday, may never happen. Which two noun positions are not used?

  31. Infinitive Phrases used as ADJECTIVES: • The movie to see is Avatar. • I missed the road to take to the beach. • The place to see moose is Canada. • I need a place to keep my book bag. Adjective infinitive phrases will come directly after a noun and modify it by answering “which?” or “what kind?.”

  32. Infinitive Phrases used as ADVERBS: • I went to the pond to fish. • To get into Harvard, you must study. • I am happy to be here. • I am sad to see you go. An infinitive phrase that comes first in a sentence MAY be an adverb, but it will have a comma after it. Adverb infinitive phrases usually answer “why?” or “how?.”

  33. Some famous Infinitives : • “To be or not to be, that is the question.” • “To know me is to love me.” • “You’ve got to live a little.” • “I vant to drink your bloooooood.” • “I wanna hold your hand.” • “I’ve only just begun to fight.” • “To boldly go where no man has gone before…” (split infinitive)

  34. Look for patterns…