Bell Ringer 04/14 Dr. Anne Savage, a conservation biologist, had directed these studies. Choose the revision of this sentence that uses a gerund phrase. A Dr. Anne Savage, a conservation biologist, has been selected to direct these studies. B Directing these studies is a conservation biologist named Dr. Anne Savage. CA conservation biologist named Dr. Anne Savage is directing these studies. D Chosen to direct these studies is a conservation biologist named Dr. Anne Savage.
Verbal Review –use notes • What are the three types of verbals • Describe each. • Find the verb in this sentence: • Standing in the rain, the cat meowed.
Verbals Review • A VERBAL is a verb form that does not act as a true verb. 1. The fireworks thrilled the onlookers. TRUE VERB 2. The thrilled crowd cheered. VERBAL.
Which words are nouns? • Alaska is fun. • English is difficult. • That is ice cream.
How can you add any noun, but can you add an action? • _______is fun. • _______ is difficult. • That is __________.
How can you add any noun, but can you add an action? • Swimmingis fun. • Working is difficult. • That is ballet dancing. These are gerunds.
Gerunds • Verbals that end in “ing” • Used as nouns • Function and way a noun can 1. subjects 2. direct objects 3. objects of preposition
Gerund as Subject • Pitching was difficult for Maria. “Pitching” functions as the subject of the sentence.
Gerund as direct object • She avoided pitching. “Pitching” functions as the direct object.
Gerund as Object of Preposition • She disliked the pressure of pitching. Functions as object of preposition.
Gerund Practice: Write the gerund and tell whether it functions as SUBJECT, DIRECT OBJECT, or OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION. • Diving is difficult for Andrew. • By practicing, he is improving his dives. • Soon Michaela will start swimming on a team. • Good coaching from Miss Rodriguez is sharpening her technique. • Sergio is beginning his training next week.
NOTES! The functions of gerunds. • As Subject: The chirping sounded sweet. • As direct object: Lucille enjoys swimming. • As predicate noun: David’s greatest talent is playing the piano. • As object of the preposition: Randall never gets tired of surfing.
Infinitives • Usually consists of the basic form of a verb preceded by the word “to”. • It can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Infinitive as a Noun • The boys liked to swim. Functions as a noun. Direct object of liked.
Infinitive as Adjective • The team had many laps to go. Functions as an adjective and modifies “laps”
Infinitives as Adverbs • The captain is always anxious to win. Functions as an adverb, modified anxious.
Infinitive Practice:write whether each infinitive acts as a NOUN, an Adjective, or an Adverb. • To skate is her one and only goal. • Coach Jackson is teaching her to spin. • At the beginning of the lesson, he begins to demonstrate the move to students. • To compete in the regional competition would make Kim happy. • Kim needs more time to practice.
Participles • Verbals that can act as adjectives. • Present participle is formed by adding “ing” to a verb. It describes an ongoing or present condition. • Past participle is formed by adding “ed” to a verb (can end in “en”) It describes something that has already happened.
Participles • Present participle: The confusing rules baffled him. (modifies rules). • Past participle: The confused team played badly. (modifies team)
Practice: infinitive, gerund, or participle? • Bowling is Reggie’s favorite sport. • Personally, I like to watch. • He begins to worry before a tournament. • Excited players sometimes make mistakes. • An athlete’s spirits are lifted by cheering fans.
Prepositions • Show the relationship between the object and other words in the sentence.
Same phrase, different meaning. • Out of pity, the man gave his shoes to the beggar. • She did not want to win out of pity because she was so weak.
Prepositional Phrases • at high speed • at all costs • for the sake of • by surprise • on demand • in a heap • in an uproar • out of spite • in danger • in mid-air • to date • under age • with the help of • without warning • under the command of • under arrest