Participle A participle is a verb form that is used as an adjective. I’m having an identity crisis. Verb
Examples: The rapidly developingstorm kept small boats in port. The pleasedstudent smiled at the teacher.
Present Participles Present participles are formed by adding –ing to the plain form of the verb. Example: The laughing student grinned like a Cheshire cat.
Past Participles Past participlesare formed by adding either –ed, -d-, -t, -en, or –n to the plain form of the verb. Others may be formed as irregular verbs. Ellie, my dachshund, had a bewilderedlook on her face when the water from the nozzle in her bathtub suddenly turned cold.
Underline the participle in the following sentences and identify if it is past or present: At night, if you are the crying inmate, you will get beat up. The bored juror yawned as she listened to the case. Mrs. Petrocelli and Mr. Briggs, the yelling attorneys, were in a heated debate. The developing trial was not looking good for Steve. The shot victim was Mr. Nesbitt.
Gerunds A gerund is a verb form used as a noun. The gerund can be formed by adding –ing to the present tense of the verb: Jog jogging Jogging at night without reflective gear can be dangerous.
Gerunds can be used as: A subject: Jogging is a popular form of exercise. A direct object: My sister enjoys jogging. Enjoys what? jogging An object of the preposition: These shoes are made for jogging. participle jogging shoes **Remember: A participle is a verb form that describes a noun.**
In the following sentences, underline the gerund(s): Lying on the stand, Osvaldo said that he was afraid of James and Steve. Peaches, sitting on the front stoop, complained about the cutbacks in welfare and social security. The attorneys enjoy debating. After fighting a gang member and cutting someone on the face, Osvaldo was able to join the gang. Sitting in film class is where Steve would rather be.
Infinitive: An infinitive is a verbal that appears after the word to. The “to” before the verb is called “The sign of the infinitive.” to run to see to hear TO
The word “to” is a preposition when it is followed by a noun or pronoun that is its object. I need a ride to the game. We went to Jeff’s party. prepositions
In the following sentences, underline the infinitives: Steve has always wanted to be a film maker. The judge wanted to hear both sides of the argument. Mr. Harmon went to see his son in jail. He tried not to, but he began to cry. Mrs. O’Brien is trying very hard to plead Steve’s case of innocence .