Verbals Verbals are words that look like verbs, but act like something else (nouns, adjectives, or adverbs)
Three Types of Verbals • Gerunds • Participles • Infinitives
Verbal #1: Gerunds • Gerunds are words that look like verbs but act like NOUNS and end in ING. • How do they function? • Subject:Reading is fun! • Predicate Noun (Nominative): My favorite hobby is reading. • Direct Object: I love reading! • Indirect Object: I gave reading a try. • Object of the Preposition: I am talking about reading.
NOTE: • An –ing word must be preceded by a helping verb in order to be a verb • EXAMPLE: • The freshmen taking the test. • The freshmen have been taking the test.
NOTE: • A noun that follows a gerund and answers the question who or what is the OBJECT OF THE GERUND! • He made a complaint by writing a letter to the president. • Writing a what? • A letter!! (OG)
Try it out! • Hiking is an excellent way to stay in good shape. • I love stomping in puddles. • My goal is graduating from high school and attending college. • I gave swimming my best effort. • I was thinking about traveling over the summer.
Write your own • Subject: • Predicate Noun (Nominative): • Direct Object: • Indirect Object: • Object of the Preposition:
Using Gerunds in Your Writing • Use gerunds to emphasize what has occurred rather than who is acting • EXAMPLE: • I like softball. It is a lot of fun. I have fun with my friends on the team. • Playing softball is fun. My teammates have become some of my good friends.
Gerund phrases • Gerunds can be attached to prepositional phrases or other words to form phrases. • Reading a book is food for the brain. • Climbing a tree can be fun but dangerous. • Running through the mall might get you kicked out. • Singing in the shower is sometimes a very bad habit.
Write your own • Gerund phrase as a subject • Gerund phrase as a predicate nominative • Gerund phrase as a direct object
NOTE: • Use gerunds to correct dangling participles at the end of sentences • He misses the bus, causing him to be late to class. • Missing the bus caused him to be late to class.
Using Gerunds in Your Writing • Combining Sentences by using a gerund. • EXAMPLES: • I used to hate English. Then I took Mrs. Avanessian. She gives clear explanations of grammar. Now I think English is interesting. • Hating English was part of my life until my first class with Mrs. Avanessian. Her clear explanations make English interesting.
On to the Practice… • Work in class • Finish for HOMEWORK! •
Participles and participial phrases Participles are verbals Participles look like verbs, but act like ADJECTIVES
End in ING Frightening Entertaining Usually end in ED Frightened Entertained Sometimes end in T or EN Burst Written Present and Past Participles
Present participle Limping, the hiker favored his aching ankle. Limping describes hiker Aching describes ankle Past participle Confused, Nan returned to her interrupted work. Confused describes Nan Interrupted describes work Examples
Try it out! • Think of three words that look like verbs, but act like adjectives. • Whip around
More examples • Jessica’s shining eyes betrayed her excitement. • The shattered window needs replacement. • The beating heart fascinated Billy. • The lost boys screamed in the night. • The policeman found the stolen car.
The present participles being and having may be followed by a past participle. • Being informed, I knew what to expect. • Having decided, Adele acted quickly.
The dog is snarling at the plumber. The singers delighted their audience. The snarling dog attacked the plumber. Delighted, the audience applauded. Verb or participle?
Verb, participle or gerund? • Do we have any wrapping paper left? • The detective was wrapping up the case. • Wrapping the gifts took longer than expected.
Let’s try that again • Emily must have been dreaming about her boyfriend. • The dreaming girl stared absently out the window. • I often remember dreaming.
Try it out! • Think of a verb which can be used as a verb, a participle, and a gerund. • Write three sentences: • Verb • Participle • Gerund
Participial phrases • Jumping high, Brad hit his head on the ceiling. • The chemist, blinded by smoky fumes, stumbled. • Scanning the book, Angelica spotted the answer.
N.B. • If you use a participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence, it absolutely must modify the subject of the sentence. • Looking down the street, I saw the rabid dog. • Looking down the street, the rabid dog came toward us.
Try it out • Write three sentences with introductory participial phrases.
Infinitivesanother verbal! To + a Verb
Preposition or Infinitive? • At the outdoor market, my grandmother likes to bargain. • Would you try to explain? • Give an explanation to Glen. • To believe took considerable faith. • Lindsey wrote letters to friends.
Infinitive or preposition? • After working so hard, he wanted to rest. • Our trip to China was filled with surprises. • Baxter’s gift to me was too extravagant. • When do you plan to graduate? • On Vicky’s way to town, she had a flat tire.
Infinitives • Infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs • They are the only thing in the English language that can • N.B. An infinitive can NEVER be the verb of the sentence
Infinitives as nouns • An infinitive as a noun can function as • The SUBJECT To read is fun! • The P.N. My ambition is to win! • The D.O. I love to read! • The O.P. The parachuter was about to jump. • Appositive You have only one choice, to go.
Try it out! • Write one sentence for each function: • Infinitive as subject • Infinitive as direct object • Infinitive as predicate nominative • Infinitive as object of the prep • Infinitive as an appositive
Infinitive as adjective: Adjectives answer which one or what kind The children showed a willingness to cooperate. What kind of willingness? To cooperate modifies willingness The time to start is now. Which time? To start modifies time Infinitives as modifiers
A little practice • That is the way to live. • Derek has the ability to succeed in business. • The man to hire is that applicant in the dark glasses. • My desire to travel has taken me all over the world. • These are the songs to sing at the concert.
Try it out! • Write three of your own sentences using infinitives as adjectives. • Circle the infinitive and draw an arrow to the word it modifies. • Label the sentence pattern.
Infinitive as adverb: • Adverbs answer WHY, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, TO WHAT EXTENT • They fought to win. • Why did they fight? • To win modifies fought. • Some people are unable to adjust. • How are they unable? • To adjust modifies unable.
A little practice • The contract was written to provide the rights and laws you must know. • The LA Zoo is fun to visit in the morning. • The winner was excited to accept the new car. • Chris is coming to discuss the location for the picnic. • Editors are trained to find grammatical errors.
Try it out! • Write three of your own sentences using an infinitive as an adverb. • Circle the infinitive and draw an arrow to the word it modifies. • Label the sentence pattern.
Infinitive Phrases • Infinitives can be expanded into phrases by adding • Adverbs: Jeff’s entire family likes to rise early. • Adverb phrases: To skateon the ice without falling was not too easy for him. • Direct objects: He hated to discuss emotions. • Indirect objects and direct objects: They promised to show us their slides. • Subject and Complement: I would like her to determine her own goals.
Identifying Infinitive Phrases • To describe the hockey game in an understandable manner required gestures. • The birdwatcher’s ambition was to see one hundred different species. • My friends and I went to see the exhibit on Indian art and to gather material for our report. • Huck and Tom swore to keep the secret about Injun Joe.
Put it all together • Choose an infinitive and use it as a noun, adjective, and adverb. • Example: to sing • I love to sing to my students. • My ability to sing has been questioned by some of my closest friends. • It is fun to sing grammar songs.