Verbals Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitive Phrases
Standard • L.8.1a - Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
Gerunds • A gerund is a verb form ending in “–ing” that is used as a noun. • Examples • Skiing down the slope was fun. • Dad’s favorite past time is fishing for trout and bass. • Give sailing a try.
Gerund Practice • In the past, working took up most people’s time six days a week. • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s powerful speaking helped draw attention to the civil rights movement. • My sister has always enjoyed riding horseback. • Why won’t that dog stop barking? • Uncle Eli’s specialty is barbecuing on the grill. • Studying usually pays off in higher scores.
Infinitives • An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, adjective or adverb. The best way to identify an infinitive is to look for the word ‘to’ followed by a verb. • To + verb = infinitive • Examples • To install the ceiling fan took two hours. • Winona’s ambition is to become a doctor • The best time to visit Florida is December through April • The gymnasts were ready to practice their routines.
Infinitive Practice • After school, June and I like to walk home together. • Usually, we go to my house or her house to listen to CDs. • I don’t like to sit still when a good song is playing. • June finally told me that she have never learned how to dance. • “Do you want to learn some steps?” I asked. • “I want to try,” she answered.
Grammar in Song • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fyr5WhdXoE8 • (compilation video, stop at 2:22)
Grammar in Song • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mjGsdF3k1s Hey Jude, don't make it badTake a sad song and make it betterRemember to let her into your heartThen you can start to make it better Hey Jude, don't be afraidYou were made to go out and get herThe minute you let her under your skinThen you begin to make it better And anytime you feel the pain, hey Jude, refrainDon't carry the world upon your shouldersFor well you know that it's a fool who plays it coolBy making his world a little colderNa nana, nana, nananana Hey Jude, don't let me downYou have found her, now go and get herRemember to let her into your heartThen you can start to make it better So let it out and let it in, hey Jude, beginYou're waiting for someone to perform withAnd don't you know that it's just you? Hey Jude, you'll doThe movement you need is on your shoulderNa nana, nana, nananana, yeah Hey Jude, don't make it badTake a sad song and make it betterRemember to let her under your skinThen you begin to make it betterBetter, better, better, better, better, oh! Na nana, na-nananaNa-nanana, hey JudeNa nana, na-nananaNa-nanana, hey Jude
Gerunds/Infinitives Activity (day 1) • Divide into groups of 4 • Each group will receive at least 8 cards • Each group makes as many matches as possible. The matches must be grammatically correct and logical. (It is sometimes possible for a group not to make any matches initially, although that is rare.) • When a group can make no more matches, it goes to other groups to look for a trade. Important: Students cannot just take a card from a group; they must trade. A group does not have to trade a card just because another group wants it. Usually, two students stay with the matches to make trades, while the other two go to different groups to see if they can make trades. Usually the students split up the unmatched cards: the students staying to make trades keep some, and the students looking for matches take others. • When one group has made all its matches and the students think they are correct, the game stops. One group member (or members taking turns) reads out the matches. The other groups vote to accept or reject each match. A match can be rejected because it is not grammatical or not logical. If all matches are accepted, the game is over and that team wins.
Gerunds/Infinitives Activity (day 2) • Get into groups of 4 • Send one representative to get a die and board game for your group. • Find 4 game pieces • Roll the die. When a student lands on a space with a sentence, he/she must provide the correct form (gerund, infinitive, or base form) of the underlined verb. The other players are judges. If the space is blank, the student stops and waits for his/her next turn • The first player to read the end wins.
Participles • A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. • (Do not confuse participles with gerunds! Participles act as ADJECTIVES) • Examples • The smiling child waved. • The police officers searched the abandoned warehouse. • The horses, trotting past were not frightened by the crowd.
Participle Practice • Records, cracked and warped, were in the old trunk in the attic. • The children, fidgeting noisily, waited eagerly for recess. • Recently released, the movie is not yet in local theaters. • The charging bull thundered across the field of red and orange poppies. • Cheering and clapping, the spectators greeted their team.
Participle Activity • Using the handout “That’s Entertaining!”, identify gerund, infinitive, or participle in the following movie, music group, or song titles: